The non-dystrophic myotonias (NDMs) are rare muscle hyperexcitability disorders caused by gain-of-function mutations in the SCN4A gene or loss-of-function mutations in the CLCN1 gene. Clinically, they are characterized by myotonia, defined as delayed muscle relaxation after voluntary contraction, which leads to symptoms of muscle stiffness, pain, fatigue, and weakness. Diagnosis is based on history and examination findings, the presence of electrical myotonia on electromyography (EMG), and genetic confirmation. In the absence of genetic confirmation, the diagnosis is supported by detailed electrophysiological testing, exclusion of other related disorders, and analysis of a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) if present. Symptomatic treatment with a sodium channel blocker, such as mexiletine, is usually the first step in management, as well as educating patients about potential anesthetic complications.
Guidelines on clinical presentation and management of non-dystrophic myotonias. Stunnenberg B, LoRusso S, Arnold WD, Barohn RJ, Cannon SC, Fontaine B, Griggs RC, Hanna MG, Matthews E, Meola G, Sansone VA, Trivedi JR, van Engelen B, Vicart S, Statland JM. Muscle Nerve. 2020 Apr 8. doi: 10.1002/mus.26887. [Epub ahead of print] Review.