Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is among the most prevalent of the adult-onset muscular dystrophies. FSHD causes a loss of muscle mass and function, resulting in severe debilitation and reduction in quality of life. Currently only the symptoms of FSHD can be treated and with minimal benefit. The available options are not curative and none of the treatments address the underlying cause of FSHD. The genetic, epigenetic, and molecular mechanisms triggering FSHD are now quite well understood, and it has been shown that expression of the transcriptional regulator double homeobox 4 (DUX4) is necessary for disease onset and is largely thought to be the causative factor in FSHD. Therefore, the authors sought to identify compounds suppressing DUX4 expression in a phenotypic screen using FSHD patient-derived muscle cells, a zinc finger and SCAN domain-containing 4 (ZSCAN4)-based reporter gene assay for measuring DUX4 activity, and ~3000 small molecules. This effort identified molecules that reduce DUX4 gene expression and hence DUX4 activity. Among those, β-2 adrenergic receptor agonists and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, both leading to increased cellular cAMP, effectively decreased DUX4 expression by > 75% in cells from individuals with FSHD. Of note, the authors found that cAMP production reduces DUX4 expression through a protein kinase A-dependent mode of action in FSHD patient myotubes. These findings increase our understanding of how DUX4 expression is regulated in FSHD and point to potential areas of therapeutic intervention.
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Cruz JM Jr, Hupper N, Wilson LS, et al. Protein kinase A activation inhibits DUX4 gene expression in myotubes from patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. J Biol Chem. 2018 Jun 13. pii:jbc.RA118.002633.