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Glossary




Gene :

sequence of DNA composing a unit of genetic information. One gene codes for one protein, thereby ensuring a precise function. A gene can contain sequences that code (exons) and sequences that do not code (introns).

Gene therapy :

set of therapeutic approaches involving the transfer of genetic information to cells, tissues or organs of a patient, in order to overcome a genetic default or to provide a protective or corrective function.

Gene therapy ex vivo :

type of gene therapy in which cells are removed from a patient, genetically modified by a vector carrying the therapeutic gene outside the body and are then re-introduced in the same patient.

Genetic code :

used to translate the message coded in the gene into a protein. One sequence of 3 nucleotides (codon) corresponds to one amino acid (of the protein).

Genetic counselling (consultation) :

information given by a geneticist during a consultation, to every person with a genetic disease or related to the afflicted person, in order to determine the risk of being affected or of transmitting the disease.

Genetic engineering :

methods of investigation and of experimentation on genes (cloning, synthesis of a therapeutic protein...)

Genetic linkage :

probability with which two neighbouring genes (on the same chromosome) can be transmitted together in case of rearrangement of the genetic material.

Genetic map :

Markers located along the length of each chromosome. These markers enable genes located on different chromosomes to be localised.

Genetic marker :

sequence of DNA transmitted within a family in the same way and at the same time as the gene involved in the genetic disease, and that is used as a marker when searching for the gene.

Genetic recombination :

exchange of fragments between two DNA molecules that can cause mutations.

Genome :

the entire DNA of an organism.

GLP :

Good Laboratory Practices.

GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) :

procedures guaranteeing quality.